Pure tantalum is one of the most corrosion-resistant metals, but its extremely high cost makes it an impractical option for all but the most corrosive applica- tions. However, a new tantalum-based nanotechnology can provide the corro- sion protection of tantalum at a reasonable cost. Tantaline's nanotechnology is based on heating and reacting pure tantalum metal to produce a gaseous atmosphere of tan- talum. The tantalum vapor then creates an alloy bond on the surface (and into the core substrate), becoming a true surface alloy. Because the reaction is on the nano level, with tantalum atoms grown into and on top of all surfaces, its characteristics are very different from traditional coatings such as thermal spray or electroplating.